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 Computer Architectures - Digital Circuits We introduce the fundamental building blocks of digital computers. We discuss truth tables as a way both of describing an existing circuit and of specifying a circuit to be built. e introduce circuits whose output values depend only on a combination of the input values. We explain how to describe circuits as algebraic formulae and how to manipulate those formulae with algebraic laws. A particular combinatorial circuit so commonly used that we discuss it separately. A particular combinatorial circuit so commonly used that we discuss it separately. A particular combinatorial circuit so commonly used that we discuss it separately. In this section, we introduce the fundamentals of binary arithmetic and representation of numbers. We show different circuits for binary arithmetic and explain trade-offs between speed and number of gates. Flip-flops are the basic elements of sequential circuits, the way gates are the basic elements of combinatorial circuits. We discuss state tables as a way both of describing an existing sequential circuit and as a way of specifying a sequential circuit to be built. We introduce circuits whose output values depend not only on the inputs, but also on previous input and output values. A register is a particularly simple sequential circuit that can be instructed to store its input values indefinitely. A counter is a another particularly simple sequential circuit that normally increments its stored value for each clock pulse. We show how to build a circuit for binary multiplication. Tri-state logic circuits represent a pragmatic solution to some problems of circuit complexity. With tri-state logic, we can use a bus to transport data. While memories are clearly sequential circuits, they have a special structure that makes it interesting to look at them separately. A read-only memory is nothing more than a combinatorial circuit, but often built as a memory.

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